Database Management Basics

Database management is the method for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data, disseminating it to users and applications, editing it as needed as well as monitoring changes in data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is a part of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, also known as attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most used database type currently. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data since it does not require the changing of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of various external views based on different data models. It also could include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.